Wireless Charging Technology
Wireless means wireless. Wireless charging technology is charging an electric car without involving cables directly related to the vehicle system. Wireless charging or wireless charging is done without connector. The location of wireless charging is called wireless electric vehicle charging station (WEVCS). There is no plug in WEVCS like charging in standard EVCS. Wireless charging technology for electric cars is one of the latest developments for battery charging. The basic principle of electric car charger or wireless charger is the same as the working principle of transformer. One of the advantages of wireless or wireless charging is that electric car charging becomes safer and more convenient for users.
If the transformer has a primary side and a secondary side, then charging without a WECVS cable there is a transmitter side (transmitter) and a receiver side (receiver). If the transformer has a primary twist (coil) and a secondary twist, wireless charging of electric cars also consists of transmitter twists and receiver twists.
It’s just that, wireless charging of electric cars changes the parameters of alternating current (AC) from a low frequency of 50Hz to a high frequency, where it does not occur on transformers. High-frequency AC power is supplied to the transmitter coil, and a magnetic field is formed back and forth. This field then induces the receiver’s twist so that the voltage appears in the receiver’s twist. This voltage is used to charge the vehicle’s battery.
The most important thing in wireless charging or wireless charging to stay efficient is to maintain the resonance frequency between the transmitter and the receiver. In order for the resonance frequency to be maintained, a compensation network is added on both sides.
Early History of Wireless Charging
Wireless charging technology was initiated by Nikola Tesla’s research around 1891. At that time he made Tesla coils. The purpose of his research was to develop a wireless power transmission system. Tesla later built the Wardenclyffe Tower as a large-capacity high-voltage wireless energy transmission station. Unfortunately, the tower was dynamite and destroyed on 4 July 1917.
Static and Dynamic Wireless Charging
Based on the application, wireless charging technology for electric cars is distinguished into two categories,
- Static Wireless Charging
- Dynamic Wireless Charging
Static Wireless Charging
Wireless charging is also called static wireless charging station (SWCS). As the name suggests, the car’s battery is charged when it shuts (stops). We can park the vehicle in the parking lot or in the garage combined with the wireless charging station (WCS). The transmitter is installed underground while the receiver is mounted under the vehicle. Charging is done by aligning the transmitter with the receiver and then silenced so that the charging process takes place. The duration of wireless charing depends on:
- Large ac power supply
- Distance between transmitter &receiver
- The size of the pads.
Wireless charging of SWCS electric cars is best built in areas where cars are parked for specific time intervals.
Dynamic Wireless Charging System
Wireless charging is also called dynamic wireless charging station (DWCS). As the name suggests, wireless charging or wireless charging can be done while the car is running. Power is transferred through the air from the stationary transmitter to the receiver’s twist on the moving vehicle. Wireless charging technology allows car mileage to be further away. Because, the battery is charged continuously during the trip. This reduces the need for a large car battery capacity so that it can reduce the weight of the car. The reduction of the load will further the mileage.
Types of Wireless Charging Electric Cars
Based on its operation, wireless charging technology for electric cars (WEVCS) can be classified into four types
- Capacitive Wireless Charging (CWCS)
- Wireless Charging Permanent Magnetic Gear (PMWC)
- Inductive Wireless Charging (IWC)
- Wireless Charging Inductive Resonant (RIWC)