Means High and Low Blood Sugar Levels

Blood sugar level is the amount of sugar or glucose in the blood. Although constantly changing, blood sugar levels need to be kept within normal limits so that there are no disturbances in the body.

Blood sugar levels are influenced by nutritional intake from food or drinks, especially carbohydrates, as well as the amount of insulin and the sensitivity of the body’s cells to insulin. Blood sugar levels that are too high or too low will have a negative impact on health, both in the short and long term.

What Happens If Blood Sugar Is Too High?

Blood sugar levels are said to be too high if they exceed 200 mg/dL. The medical term for blood sugar levels that are too high is hyperglycemia.

Hyperglycemia can occur when the body does not have enough insulin, a hormone released by the pancreas. Insulin functions to spread sugar from the blood to all body cells so that it can be processed into energy.

High blood sugar can also occur when the body’s cells are not sensitive to insulin, so sugar from the blood cannot enter the cells for processing.

High blood sugar is often experienced by diabetics who do not lead a healthy lifestyle, such as eating too much, not exercising enough, or forgetting to take diabetes medication or insulin. In addition, high blood sugar in diabetics can also be triggered by stress, infection, or taking certain medications.

Normal people who do not have diabetes can also develop hyperglycemia, especially if they are seriously ill. Signs you have blood sugar levels that are too high are feeling tired, eating very high, losing weight, feeling thirsty, and urinating frequently.

If blood sugar levels reach 350 mg/dL or more, symptoms that can appear are extreme thirst, blurred vision, dizziness, restlessness, and loss of consciousness. In addition, the skin will look red, dry, and feel hot.

If not treated immediately, blood sugar levels that are too high can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemia syndrome, which can be fatal.

In addition, high blood sugar levels in the long term without treatment can increase the risk of tooth and gum infections, skin problems, osteoporosis, kidney failure, nerve damage, blindness, and cardiovascular disease (heart and blood vessels).

What Happens If Blood Sugar Is Too Low?

Blood sugar is too low or hypoglycemia occurs when blood sugar levels are below 70 mg/dL. This condition is also common in people with diabetes, which is a side effect of the antidiabetic drugs they take. Antidiabetic drugs, especially insulin, can lower blood sugar levels excessively.

People with type 1 diabetes do not have enough insulin. Therefore, additional insulin is needed from the outside which is usually in the form of injections. But if the dose is too high, insulin can make blood sugar drop drastically.

In people with diabetes, hypoglycemia can occur if the use of insulin or antidiabetic drugs is not accompanied by adequate food intake. Excessive exercise can also trigger this condition.

Not only diabetics, people who do not have diabetes can also experience hypoglycemia or low blood sugar. Some of the causes are:

  • Drinking too much alcohol.
  • Suffering from certain diseases, such as hepatitis, anorexia nervosa, or insulinoma.
  • Lack of certain hormones.
  • Taking certain drugs, such as quinine.
  • Accidentally taking other people’s antidiabetic drugs.

If blood sugar levels are low, the body will feel weak and powerless. Other symptoms that you can experience are hunger, cold sweats, pale skin, palpitations, tingling in the mouth area, restlessness, and irritability.

While the symptoms that you will experience when blood sugar levels are too low (below 40 mg/dL), include:

  • Talk rambling
  • Difficult to concentrate
  • Unable to stand or walk
  • Muscle twitch
  • Seizures

If left untreated, this condition can lead to stroke, coma, and even death.

Let’s Check Your Blood Sugar

Blood sugar tests are generally recommended for people who have diabetes symptoms, such as frequent thirst, frequent urination, and frequent hunger. In addition, this test can also be recommended for people who have a family history of diabetes.

The way to find out blood sugar levels is to do a blood test. This test is useful for monitoring blood sugar levels in your body, so it doesn’t go out of normal limits.

Blood sugar tests can be done at home using a glucometer. Blood samples for this examination are taken by pricking the fingertips using a special needle.

You can also do a blood sugar test at the hospital. There are several types of blood sugar tests that can be done:

Fasting blood sugar test

You are required to fast for eight hours before taking the blood sample. This test is often used to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes.
Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)

In this test you will be given a certain amount of glucose, and two hours later, your blood sugar level will be checked.
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or glycohemoglobin . test

This test is done to determine blood sugar levels in red blood cells. The HbA1c test results can provide information about your sugar levels over the past 2-3 months.

This test makes it easier for the doctor to adjust the dose and type of antidiabetic medication, if needed. You do not need to undergo any special preparation to perform this test.
Blood sugar test when

This test can be done at any time and does not require special preparation. However, regular blood sugar tests cannot be used to diagnose diabetes.

This examination is only used to monitor blood sugar fluctuations in diabetics, or to see blood sugar levels in patients with certain conditions, such as weakness or fainting.

If your blood sugar test results are high, it doesn’t necessarily mean you have diabetes. It could be that this condition is the influence of the food or drink you have just consumed.

If your blood sugar test results show low levels, but you don’t feel weak or dizzy, there may be an error with the test equipment or technique. Therefore, you need to discuss the results of this examination again with your doctor.

It is highly recommended to consult with your doctor first about what tests are suitable for you to undergo. Also ask your doctor about the risks or other things related to the test.
Then What Are Normal Blood Sugar Levels?

Normal blood sugar levels are not always the same, depending on when the test is done, after or before eating. The following are limits for normal blood sugar levels, but have different standards.
Blood sugar test after eating

If the blood sugar test is done two hours after eating, the normal blood sugar level is less than 140 mg/dL or 7.8 mmol/L. This limitation applies to persons under 50 years of age.

For people aged 50-60 years, the normal level is less than 150 mg/dL or 8.3 mmol/L. Whereas in people aged 60 years and over, normal blood sugar levels are 160 mg/dL or 8.9 mmol/L.
Blood sugar test after fasting

If the blood sugar test is done after fasting, the normal blood sugar level should be less or equal to 100 mg/dL or 5.6 mmol/L.
Random blood sugar test

If the blood sugar test is done randomly (time blood sugar test), then the results cannot be compared, depending on when the test was carried out and what was consumed before the test.

In general, a normal blood sugar level is 80-120 mg/dL or 4.4-6.6 mmol/L, if the test is taken before eating or after waking up. Meanwhile, if the test is done before bed, the normal limit is 100-140 mg/dL or 5.5-7.7 mmol/L.
Hemoglobin test for blood sugar

On the hemoglobin test for blood sugar (HbA1c), the normal level is less than or about 7 percent.

But you need to remember, the limits used by each laboratory may be different, depending on the equipment used. So, use the benchmarks provided by the laboratory where you check blood sugar.

In addition, make sure you also record the date of the test and the results, as well as what you consumed and the activities you did before taking the test.

Normal blood sugar results do not always indicate that you are not at risk for diabetes. To be sure, you are still advised to consult the results of your blood sugar test with your doctor, especially if you have symptoms of diabetes or are at risk for developing diabetes.

Blood sugar checks should be done wisely and according to needs. Take a blood sugar check according to the doctor’s advice and apply a healthy lifestyle to prevent the bad effects of high or low blood sugar levels.

Wireless Battery Charging

Wireless Battery Charging is a battery recharge using an electromagnetic field to transfer energy between two objects through electromagnetic induction. This wireless charging technology was originally used to recharge batteries for relatively small mobile devices such as Smartphones and Smartphones. But today it has evolved into a technology that can recharge larger devices such as Car Batteries and other large devices.

This wireless charging or wireless charging usually uses an inductive clutch between two circuits to transfer power from one circuit to another and has no physical electrical contact so it is more convenient and also does not depend on connector contacts that can wear out after many charging cycles.

Wireless Battery Charging is usually flat or flat to facilitate the placement of devices to be recharged. In its application, wireless charging consists of two flat inductor reels whose primary side is connected to the power source while the secondary side is near the devices to be charged.

Some aspects of which affect how wireless battery charging works is the efficiency, diameter of the coil or coil and frequency used. The next aspect to note in the design of wireless charging is filtering and ensuring that wireless power transfer does not interfere with other electronic circuits, especially on power-receiving devices.

Wireless Charging Standard

There are several wireless charging standards that have been developed and can be found on the market. Among these standards are two of the most common standards found, namely Qi Wireless Charging Standard and A4WP Wireless Charging Standard.

1. Qi Wireless Charging Standard

The Qi Wireless Charging Standard was the first to be invented and has a fairly dominant market share. This standard has been adopted by the majority of phone manufacturers to recharge their phone batteries. Basically this Qi Wireless Charging Standard is an inductive system that uses relatively low frequencies (between 110 and 205 kHz for low power and 80 to 300 kHz for medium power) for power transfer.

2. A4WP Standard

The A4WP wireless power standard was developed slightly slower than the Qi standard. This A4WP standard uses resonance techniques along with a higher power transfer frequency of 6.78 MHz for power, and 2.4GHz for control signals. This A4WP standard also allows simultaneous charging for multiple devices.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Wireless Battery Charging

The following are some of the advantages and disadvantages of Wireless Battery Charging.

Advantages of Wireless Battery Charging:

  • Convenience and Practical – Just put a device that requires charging to the charging area.
  • Reduce wear on plugs and sockets – as there is no physical connection, no problems with connector wear and more. Physically the system is more powerful than the one that uses the connector.
  • Impurities resistance – some applications operate in highly contaminated environments. Since there are no connectors, the system is much more resistant to contamination.
  • More suitable for applications in medical environments – using wireless charging is not required connectors that can hold bacteria and others so it is safer to use on medical equipment that requires battery power.

Disadvantages of Wireless Battery Charging :

  • Additional complexity – this system requires a more complex system to transfer power through a cordless interface.
  • Additional costs – because these systems are more complicated than traditional wired systems, wireless chargers will be more expensive.
  • Reduced efficiency – there are disadvantages to the wireless battery charging system such as resistivity losses on coils and others. But basically it can still be about 85 – 90% efficiency when compared to charging with cables.

Wireless Charging Technology For Electric Cars

Wireless Charging Technology

Wireless means wireless. Wireless charging technology is charging an electric car without involving cables directly related to the vehicle system. Wireless charging or wireless charging is done without connector. The location of wireless charging is called wireless electric vehicle charging station (WEVCS). There is no plug in WEVCS like charging in standard EVCS. Wireless charging technology for electric cars is one of the latest developments for battery charging. The basic principle of electric car charger or wireless charger is the same as the working principle of transformer. One of the advantages of wireless or wireless charging is that electric car charging becomes safer and more convenient for users.

If the transformer has a primary side and a secondary side, then charging without a WECVS cable there is a transmitter side (transmitter) and a receiver side (receiver). If the transformer has a primary twist (coil) and a secondary twist, wireless charging of electric cars also consists of transmitter twists and receiver twists.

It’s just that, wireless charging of electric cars changes the parameters of alternating current (AC) from a low frequency of 50Hz to a high frequency, where it does not occur on transformers. High-frequency AC power is supplied to the transmitter coil, and a magnetic field is formed back and forth. This field then induces the receiver’s twist so that the voltage appears in the receiver’s twist. This voltage is used to charge the vehicle’s battery.

The most important thing in wireless charging or wireless charging to stay efficient is to maintain the resonance frequency between the transmitter and the receiver. In order for the resonance frequency to be maintained, a compensation network is added on both sides.

Early History of Wireless Charging

Wireless charging technology was initiated by Nikola Tesla’s research around 1891. At that time he made Tesla coils. The purpose of his research was to develop a wireless power transmission system. Tesla later built the Wardenclyffe Tower as a large-capacity high-voltage wireless energy transmission station. Unfortunately, the tower was dynamite and destroyed on 4 July 1917.

Static and Dynamic Wireless Charging

Based on the application, wireless charging technology for electric cars is distinguished into two categories,

  • Static Wireless Charging
  • Dynamic Wireless Charging

Static Wireless Charging

Wireless charging is also called static wireless charging station (SWCS). As the name suggests, the car’s battery is charged when it shuts (stops). We can park the vehicle in the parking lot or in the garage combined with the wireless charging station (WCS). The transmitter is installed underground while the receiver is mounted under the vehicle. Charging is done by aligning the transmitter with the receiver and then silenced so that the charging process takes place. The duration of wireless charing depends on:

  • Large ac power supply
  • Distance between transmitter &receiver
  • The size of the pads.

Wireless charging of SWCS electric cars is best built in areas where cars are parked for specific time intervals.

Dynamic Wireless Charging System

Wireless charging is also called dynamic wireless charging station (DWCS). As the name suggests, wireless charging or wireless charging can be done while the car is running. Power is transferred through the air from the stationary transmitter to the receiver’s twist on the moving vehicle. Wireless charging technology allows car mileage to be further away. Because, the battery is charged continuously during the trip. This reduces the need for a large car battery capacity so that it can reduce the weight of the car. The reduction of the load will further the mileage.

Types of Wireless Charging Electric Cars

Based on its operation, wireless charging technology for electric cars (WEVCS) can be classified into four types

  • Capacitive Wireless Charging (CWCS)
  • Wireless Charging Permanent Magnetic Gear (PMWC)
  • Inductive Wireless Charging (IWC)
  • Wireless Charging Inductive Resonant (RIWC)

Capacitive Wireless Charging

Wireless charging or wireless charging of CWCS-type electric cars is done using displacement current due to the variation of electric fields. Instead of magnets or reels as transmitters and receivers, clutch capacitors are used here as wireless power transmissions. AC voltage was first supplied to the power factor correction circuit aimed at improving efficiency, maintaining voltage levels and reducing transmission losses. It is then supplied to the H-bridge for high frequency AC voltage generation. This high-frequency air conditioner applied to the transmission plate causes the development of an oscillating electric field and then causes the displacement current on the receiver plate through static electro induction.

The receiver-side AC voltage is converted to DC and then charged via BMS by a series of rectifiers and filters. The frequency, voltage, size of the clutch capacitor and the air gap between the transmitter and the receiver affect the amount of energy transfer. The operating frequency is between 100 to 600 KHz.

Wireless Charging Permanent Magnet Gear (PMWC)

In this wireless charging technology for electric cars, each transmitter also receiver consists of haunted twists and permanent magnets synchronized in the twist. The principle of transmitter side operation is similar to motor operation. When we apply the AC current to the transmitter, it will cause the mechanical torque on the transmitter magnet to cause its spin. Due to changes in transmitter magnetic interaction, the PM field causes torque on the PM receiver resulting in rotation in sync with the transmitter magnet. Now the change in the receiver’s permanent magnetic field causes the production of ac current in the twist that is, the receiver acts as a generator as a mechanical power input to the receiver PM which is converted into electrical output on the receiver’s twist. A rotating permanent magnetic clutch is called a magnetic gear. The resulting AC power on the receiving side is fed to the battery after repair and filtered through the power converter.

Inductive Wireless Charging (IWC)

The basic principle of wireless charging or wireless charging of electric cars is faraday induction law. Here, wireless transmission is achieved by inducing the magnetic field between the transmitter coil and the receiver. When the main AC supply is applied to the transmitter coil, it creates an AC magnetic field that passes through the transmitter coil and this magnetic field moves electrons in the receiver twist causing the AC power output. This air conditioning output is repaired and filtered and then fills the car’s energy storage system. The number of transfers on the electric car wireless charger depends on the frequency, joint inductance and distance between the transmitter and the receiver coil. The operating frequency of IWC electric car wireless charging is between 19 to 50 KHz.

Wireless Charging Inductive Resonant (RIWC)

Wireless charging of this electric car is basically a resonator with a high quality factor transmitting energy at a much higher level. Because it operates on resonance, even with a weaker magnetic field, we can transmit an amount of energy as large as the transfer capacity as in IWC. Power can be transferred remotely without wires. Maximum power transfer through the air occurs when the transmitter and receiver twists are arranged in such a way that the frequency of the two resonance coils must match. So in order to obtain a good resonance frequency, additional network compensation of parallel-series combinations is added to the transmitter coil as well as receiver. Additional compensation networks on this listrk car wireless charger should adjust the increased resonance frequency as well as reduce additional losses. Riwc operating frequency is between 10 to 150 KHz.

All the wireless charger technology of electric cars or wireless charging for wevcs electric cars above will certainly increase the interest of consumers to have this type of car, because it gives more choices.


For consultation on the above topic, please contact PT. Omazaki Envirokal Prakarsa, including EVCS installation plan for household, office, commercial, industrial, or public charging stations (SPLU). Training of wireless charging technology for electric cars (WEVCS) or wireless electric car chargers can be seen on the Omazaki Training page.

Interesting Facts about Piranhas, Predator Fish from South America

Piranha fish are often described as ferocious freshwater fish, because of their nature as carnivores.

If you’ve ever watched the Piranha movie, surely you are familiar with the ferocity of these predatory fish. Piranhas have sharp teeth and a high prey instinct, making them one of the most feared fish species.

But is the ferocity of the piranha in the film the same as the life of the fish in the real world? Here are some unique facts about piranhas that you need to know.

1. The bad image of piranhas stems from the writings of Theodore Roosevelt

The terrible impression and ferocity of piranha fish was first written by the former President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt, in his book entitled Through the Brazillian Wilderness.

The book tells of Roosevelt’s journey to South America in 1913, where at that time Roosevelt met several species of piranha.

When Roosevelt traveled to the Amazon, Brazil, in 1913, the locals wanted to put on a show for the former president of the United States.

Residents deliberately threw a live cow into a river filled with piranhas. These fish were previously caught and left to starve.

When the cow enters the water, the hungry piranha immediately eats the cow with its sharp teeth, leaving only bones.

In his book, Roosevelt mentions that piranhas are perfect killing machines. This fish is considered more terrible than sharks and barracuda fish.

Piranha fish are also said to be able to mutilate people who are swimming in rivers or large animals that are injured.

2. Its natural habitat is in South America

The piranha’s natural habitat is rivers in South America. Piranhas are found along the Orinoco river in Venezuela to the Parana river in Argentina.

Until now it is estimated that there are about 30 species of piranha fish that live in lakes and rivers in South America.

Piranha fish are also predicted to have inhabited rivers in South America millions of years ago. Piranha fossils prove that these fish began to occupy rivers in South America since 25 million years ago.

3. Piranha teeth are strong and sharp, but they can fall out

The name “piranha” comes from the language of the Tupi people, a tribe that lives in Brazil. Piranha itself means “jagged fish.” This is in accordance with the characteristics of these fish are sharp and terrible.

Piranha is famous as a type of fish that has a strong and sharp bite accompanied by non-stop bites on its prey. The shape of the piranha’s teeth is often compared to a sharp knife. The shape of the piranha’s teeth is also adapted to the fish’s diet.

The piranha’s tooth structure is actually similar to that of a shark, so it’s not uncommon for piranhas to lose their teeth throughout their lives.

4. Piranhas only eat human corpses, not living humans

What is shown in the film Piranha is actually just an exaggerated story. In fact, piranhas will not eat humans alive and well.

The idea that piranhas can eat humans alive is probably just a myth. Indeed, there have been several cases of piranha eating humans in South America, but usually the previous victim drowned or died before falling prey to piranhas.

According to research, it takes about 300 to 500 piranha fish to eat 180 kilograms of human flesh in just about 5 minutes.

5. Piranhas are generally meat eaters, but some are vegetarian

Piranha food is insects, fish, shrimp, carrion worms, and seeds. If food sources are reduced, piranhas can become predators of other piranhas, both living and dead.

Although piranhas are known as meat-eating fish, there are several types of piranhas that eat seeds and plants.

6. Piranhas only attack when disturbed

Piranhas do have a reputation for attacking humans, but actually these fish only attack if disturbed.

Usually, piranha fish attack divers if the river water level drops, prey starts to run out, or something disturbs their eggs.

Thus, if a person is in a situation where the piranha is very hungry or feels threatened, the fish will become more aggressive and may attack humans.

7. Piranhas can bark

One of the uniqueness of the piranha fish is that it can make three distinctive sounds as a warning to its opponent. When threatened by other fish, the piranha will make a sound similar to the barking of a dog.

When fighting with other fish, piranhas emit a grunt or thump sound produced by the swimbladder organ.

If the opponent does not immediately retreat, the piranha will grit its teeth and immediately chase the enemy.

8. Attacking prey on the tail or eyes

In a study conducted in 1972, it was stated that the distended red piranha attacked its prey in the tail or eyes.

According to the researchers, the behavior of this piranha fish is an effective attack strategy to paralyze prey.

Here are some unique facts about piranhas, predatory fish from South America. Hope it is useful.

Interesting Facts About Hydra You Need to Know Hydra is an example of an animal that has a unique way of reproduction, namely by forming shoots.

The formation of buds in hydra begins with the formation of a bulge on the body (middle body wall).

The protrusion is getting longer and longer, then forms a mouth and tentacles (arms). After the shoots mature, they will break away from the parent’s body.

In addition to unique facts about how to breed, it turns out that hydras also have other unique facts that are interesting to read.

The following are some unique and interesting facts about hydra that you need to know.

Fact 1

Hydra is a genus of small animals from the phylum Cnidaria. Hydra lives in water in temperate and tropical climates.

Fact 2

Hydra has a tubular body, measuring 10 mm in length. At the free end of the body is a mouth opening surrounded by 1 to 12 tentacles. Each tentacle has a use for capturing prey and protecting oneself.

Fact 3

Hydra has two body layers or is “diploblastic”. The respiratory system of hydra occurs through ubiquitous diffusion through the layers of the epidermis.

Fact 4

In Ancient Greek myth, Hydra is described as a monster in the form of a serpent or dragon with nine heads.

If every one of them is cut, then this head will grow or form two new heads.

Fact 5

The nervous system of the hydra is a simple neural network. Hydra does not have a brain as a nerve center, only a network of nerve cells.

This neural network will connect the senses of touch and sight of the locomotor parts of the body and tentacles.

Fact 6

If disturbed, the hydra’s body will contract, making it look like a small lump.

Fact 7

Hydra moves very slowly. They will usually stick to submerged plants or rocks.

Fact 8

New Hydra generally has a body size of 3/5 of the size of the parent body.

Fact 9

In addition to reproducing by dividing (sexually), hydras also reproduce sexually (mating).

Here are some unique and interesting facts about Hydra that you need to know. Thank you for visiting and hopefully useful.