Means High and Low Blood Sugar Levels

Blood sugar level is the amount of sugar or glucose in the blood. Although constantly changing, blood sugar levels need to be kept within normal limits so that there are no disturbances in the body.

Blood sugar levels are influenced by nutritional intake from food or drinks, especially carbohydrates, as well as the amount of insulin and the sensitivity of the body’s cells to insulin. Blood sugar levels that are too high or too low will have a negative impact on health, both in the short and long term.

What Happens If Blood Sugar Is Too High?

Blood sugar levels are said to be too high if they exceed 200 mg/dL. The medical term for blood sugar levels that are too high is hyperglycemia.

Hyperglycemia can occur when the body does not have enough insulin, a hormone released by the pancreas. Insulin functions to spread sugar from the blood to all body cells so that it can be processed into energy.

High blood sugar can also occur when the body’s cells are not sensitive to insulin, so sugar from the blood cannot enter the cells for processing.

High blood sugar is often experienced by diabetics who do not lead a healthy lifestyle, such as eating too much, not exercising enough, or forgetting to take diabetes medication or insulin. In addition, high blood sugar in diabetics can also be triggered by stress, infection, or taking certain medications.

Normal people who do not have diabetes can also develop hyperglycemia, especially if they are seriously ill. Signs you have blood sugar levels that are too high are feeling tired, eating very high, losing weight, feeling thirsty, and urinating frequently.

If blood sugar levels reach 350 mg/dL or more, symptoms that can appear are extreme thirst, blurred vision, dizziness, restlessness, and loss of consciousness. In addition, the skin will look red, dry, and feel hot.

If not treated immediately, blood sugar levels that are too high can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemia syndrome, which can be fatal.

In addition, high blood sugar levels in the long term without treatment can increase the risk of tooth and gum infections, skin problems, osteoporosis, kidney failure, nerve damage, blindness, and cardiovascular disease (heart and blood vessels).

What Happens If Blood Sugar Is Too Low?

Blood sugar is too low or hypoglycemia occurs when blood sugar levels are below 70 mg/dL. This condition is also common in people with diabetes, which is a side effect of the antidiabetic drugs they take. Antidiabetic drugs, especially insulin, can lower blood sugar levels excessively.

People with type 1 diabetes do not have enough insulin. Therefore, additional insulin is needed from the outside which is usually in the form of injections. But if the dose is too high, insulin can make blood sugar drop drastically.

In people with diabetes, hypoglycemia can occur if the use of insulin or antidiabetic drugs is not accompanied by adequate food intake. Excessive exercise can also trigger this condition.

Not only diabetics, people who do not have diabetes can also experience hypoglycemia or low blood sugar. Some of the causes are:

  • Drinking too much alcohol.
  • Suffering from certain diseases, such as hepatitis, anorexia nervosa, or insulinoma.
  • Lack of certain hormones.
  • Taking certain drugs, such as quinine.
  • Accidentally taking other people’s antidiabetic drugs.

If blood sugar levels are low, the body will feel weak and powerless. Other symptoms that you can experience are hunger, cold sweats, pale skin, palpitations, tingling in the mouth area, restlessness, and irritability.

While the symptoms that you will experience when blood sugar levels are too low (below 40 mg/dL), include:

  • Talk rambling
  • Difficult to concentrate
  • Unable to stand or walk
  • Muscle twitch
  • Seizures

If left untreated, this condition can lead to stroke, coma, and even death.

Let’s Check Your Blood Sugar

Blood sugar tests are generally recommended for people who have diabetes symptoms, such as frequent thirst, frequent urination, and frequent hunger. In addition, this test can also be recommended for people who have a family history of diabetes.

The way to find out blood sugar levels is to do a blood test. This test is useful for monitoring blood sugar levels in your body, so it doesn’t go out of normal limits.

Blood sugar tests can be done at home using a glucometer. Blood samples for this examination are taken by pricking the fingertips using a special needle.

You can also do a blood sugar test at the hospital. There are several types of blood sugar tests that can be done:

Fasting blood sugar test

You are required to fast for eight hours before taking the blood sample. This test is often used to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes.
Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)

In this test you will be given a certain amount of glucose, and two hours later, your blood sugar level will be checked.
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or glycohemoglobin . test

This test is done to determine blood sugar levels in red blood cells. The HbA1c test results can provide information about your sugar levels over the past 2-3 months.

This test makes it easier for the doctor to adjust the dose and type of antidiabetic medication, if needed. You do not need to undergo any special preparation to perform this test.
Blood sugar test when

This test can be done at any time and does not require special preparation. However, regular blood sugar tests cannot be used to diagnose diabetes.

This examination is only used to monitor blood sugar fluctuations in diabetics, or to see blood sugar levels in patients with certain conditions, such as weakness or fainting.

If your blood sugar test results are high, it doesn’t necessarily mean you have diabetes. It could be that this condition is the influence of the food or drink you have just consumed.

If your blood sugar test results show low levels, but you don’t feel weak or dizzy, there may be an error with the test equipment or technique. Therefore, you need to discuss the results of this examination again with your doctor.

It is highly recommended to consult with your doctor first about what tests are suitable for you to undergo. Also ask your doctor about the risks or other things related to the test.
Then What Are Normal Blood Sugar Levels?

Normal blood sugar levels are not always the same, depending on when the test is done, after or before eating. The following are limits for normal blood sugar levels, but have different standards.
Blood sugar test after eating

If the blood sugar test is done two hours after eating, the normal blood sugar level is less than 140 mg/dL or 7.8 mmol/L. This limitation applies to persons under 50 years of age.

For people aged 50-60 years, the normal level is less than 150 mg/dL or 8.3 mmol/L. Whereas in people aged 60 years and over, normal blood sugar levels are 160 mg/dL or 8.9 mmol/L.
Blood sugar test after fasting

If the blood sugar test is done after fasting, the normal blood sugar level should be less or equal to 100 mg/dL or 5.6 mmol/L.
Random blood sugar test

If the blood sugar test is done randomly (time blood sugar test), then the results cannot be compared, depending on when the test was carried out and what was consumed before the test.

In general, a normal blood sugar level is 80-120 mg/dL or 4.4-6.6 mmol/L, if the test is taken before eating or after waking up. Meanwhile, if the test is done before bed, the normal limit is 100-140 mg/dL or 5.5-7.7 mmol/L.
Hemoglobin test for blood sugar

On the hemoglobin test for blood sugar (HbA1c), the normal level is less than or about 7 percent.

But you need to remember, the limits used by each laboratory may be different, depending on the equipment used. So, use the benchmarks provided by the laboratory where you check blood sugar.

In addition, make sure you also record the date of the test and the results, as well as what you consumed and the activities you did before taking the test.

Normal blood sugar results do not always indicate that you are not at risk for diabetes. To be sure, you are still advised to consult the results of your blood sugar test with your doctor, especially if you have symptoms of diabetes or are at risk for developing diabetes.

Blood sugar checks should be done wisely and according to needs. Take a blood sugar check according to the doctor’s advice and apply a healthy lifestyle to prevent the bad effects of high or low blood sugar levels.

Wireless Battery Charging

Wireless Battery Charging is a battery recharge using an electromagnetic field to transfer energy between two objects through electromagnetic induction. This wireless charging technology was originally used to recharge batteries for relatively small mobile devices such as Smartphones and Smartphones. But today it has evolved into a technology that can recharge larger devices such as Car Batteries and other large devices.

This wireless charging or wireless charging usually uses an inductive clutch between two circuits to transfer power from one circuit to another and has no physical electrical contact so it is more convenient and also does not depend on connector contacts that can wear out after many charging cycles.

Wireless Battery Charging is usually flat or flat to facilitate the placement of devices to be recharged. In its application, wireless charging consists of two flat inductor reels whose primary side is connected to the power source while the secondary side is near the devices to be charged.

Some aspects of which affect how wireless battery charging works is the efficiency, diameter of the coil or coil and frequency used. The next aspect to note in the design of wireless charging is filtering and ensuring that wireless power transfer does not interfere with other electronic circuits, especially on power-receiving devices.

Wireless Charging Standard

There are several wireless charging standards that have been developed and can be found on the market. Among these standards are two of the most common standards found, namely Qi Wireless Charging Standard and A4WP Wireless Charging Standard.

1. Qi Wireless Charging Standard

The Qi Wireless Charging Standard was the first to be invented and has a fairly dominant market share. This standard has been adopted by the majority of phone manufacturers to recharge their phone batteries. Basically this Qi Wireless Charging Standard is an inductive system that uses relatively low frequencies (between 110 and 205 kHz for low power and 80 to 300 kHz for medium power) for power transfer.

2. A4WP Standard

The A4WP wireless power standard was developed slightly slower than the Qi standard. This A4WP standard uses resonance techniques along with a higher power transfer frequency of 6.78 MHz for power, and 2.4GHz for control signals. This A4WP standard also allows simultaneous charging for multiple devices.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Wireless Battery Charging

The following are some of the advantages and disadvantages of Wireless Battery Charging.

Advantages of Wireless Battery Charging:

  • Convenience and Practical – Just put a device that requires charging to the charging area.
  • Reduce wear on plugs and sockets – as there is no physical connection, no problems with connector wear and more. Physically the system is more powerful than the one that uses the connector.
  • Impurities resistance – some applications operate in highly contaminated environments. Since there are no connectors, the system is much more resistant to contamination.
  • More suitable for applications in medical environments – using wireless charging is not required connectors that can hold bacteria and others so it is safer to use on medical equipment that requires battery power.

Disadvantages of Wireless Battery Charging :

  • Additional complexity – this system requires a more complex system to transfer power through a cordless interface.
  • Additional costs – because these systems are more complicated than traditional wired systems, wireless chargers will be more expensive.
  • Reduced efficiency – there are disadvantages to the wireless battery charging system such as resistivity losses on coils and others. But basically it can still be about 85 – 90% efficiency when compared to charging with cables.

Wireless Charging Technology For Electric Cars

Wireless Charging Technology

Wireless means wireless. Wireless charging technology is charging an electric car without involving cables directly related to the vehicle system. Wireless charging or wireless charging is done without connector. The location of wireless charging is called wireless electric vehicle charging station (WEVCS). There is no plug in WEVCS like charging in standard EVCS. Wireless charging technology for electric cars is one of the latest developments for battery charging. The basic principle of electric car charger or wireless charger is the same as the working principle of transformer. One of the advantages of wireless or wireless charging is that electric car charging becomes safer and more convenient for users.

If the transformer has a primary side and a secondary side, then charging without a WECVS cable there is a transmitter side (transmitter) and a receiver side (receiver). If the transformer has a primary twist (coil) and a secondary twist, wireless charging of electric cars also consists of transmitter twists and receiver twists.

It’s just that, wireless charging of electric cars changes the parameters of alternating current (AC) from a low frequency of 50Hz to a high frequency, where it does not occur on transformers. High-frequency AC power is supplied to the transmitter coil, and a magnetic field is formed back and forth. This field then induces the receiver’s twist so that the voltage appears in the receiver’s twist. This voltage is used to charge the vehicle’s battery.

The most important thing in wireless charging or wireless charging to stay efficient is to maintain the resonance frequency between the transmitter and the receiver. In order for the resonance frequency to be maintained, a compensation network is added on both sides.

Early History of Wireless Charging

Wireless charging technology was initiated by Nikola Tesla’s research around 1891. At that time he made Tesla coils. The purpose of his research was to develop a wireless power transmission system. Tesla later built the Wardenclyffe Tower as a large-capacity high-voltage wireless energy transmission station. Unfortunately, the tower was dynamite and destroyed on 4 July 1917.

Static and Dynamic Wireless Charging

Based on the application, wireless charging technology for electric cars is distinguished into two categories,

  • Static Wireless Charging
  • Dynamic Wireless Charging

Static Wireless Charging

Wireless charging is also called static wireless charging station (SWCS). As the name suggests, the car’s battery is charged when it shuts (stops). We can park the vehicle in the parking lot or in the garage combined with the wireless charging station (WCS). The transmitter is installed underground while the receiver is mounted under the vehicle. Charging is done by aligning the transmitter with the receiver and then silenced so that the charging process takes place. The duration of wireless charing depends on:

  • Large ac power supply
  • Distance between transmitter &receiver
  • The size of the pads.

Wireless charging of SWCS electric cars is best built in areas where cars are parked for specific time intervals.

Dynamic Wireless Charging System

Wireless charging is also called dynamic wireless charging station (DWCS). As the name suggests, wireless charging or wireless charging can be done while the car is running. Power is transferred through the air from the stationary transmitter to the receiver’s twist on the moving vehicle. Wireless charging technology allows car mileage to be further away. Because, the battery is charged continuously during the trip. This reduces the need for a large car battery capacity so that it can reduce the weight of the car. The reduction of the load will further the mileage.

Types of Wireless Charging Electric Cars

Based on its operation, wireless charging technology for electric cars (WEVCS) can be classified into four types

  • Capacitive Wireless Charging (CWCS)
  • Wireless Charging Permanent Magnetic Gear (PMWC)
  • Inductive Wireless Charging (IWC)
  • Wireless Charging Inductive Resonant (RIWC)